Antisemitism is threatening to penetrate deep into the heart of Africa as the Congo contemplates disqualifying presidential hopeful Moise Katumbi for having a Sephardi father from Rhodes. JTA report in Times of Israel (With thanks: Nancy)
JTA — The ancestry of the son of a Jewish refugee in the Democratic Republic of Congo has emerged as a flashpoint for a political crisis that is threatening the integrity of the massive African country.
The crisis came to a head last week when lawmakers loyal to President Felix Tshiseked introduced a bill that would restrict the presidency to those with two Congolese parents.
It’s a thinly veiled move against Moise Katumbi, one of Congo’s most popular politicians, whose father was a Greek Jew who fled the Holocaust in Europe and settled in Congo, where he married a local woman, Katumbi’s mother.
The pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has become a household name as a manufacturer of the COVID-19 vaccine. But how many know that its CEO is a Sephardi Jew, Albert Bourla? The Jewish Voice reports (with thanks: Ambrosine):
As the announcement
of a vaccine that is 90% effective in preventing the
novel coronavirus has dominated the headlines and
given hope to people in every corner of the globe, we
pause at this juncture to pay tribute to Albert
Bourla, the chairman and CEO of pharmaceutical giant
Founded in 1849 in
New York City by Charles Pfizer, the eponymously named
pharmaceutical company is one of the world’s largest
of its kind and it ranked 57 on the 2018 Fortune 500
list of the largest United States corporations by
total revenue. Pfizer develops and produces medicines
and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines,
including immunology, oncology, cardiology,
endocrinology, and neurology. Its products include the
blockbuster drug Lipitor (atorvastatin), used to lower
LDL blood cholesterol; Lyrica (pregabalin) for
neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia; Diflucan
(fluconazole), an oral antifungal medication;
Zithromax (azithromycin), an antibiotic; Viagra
(sildenafil) for erectile dysfunction; and Celebrex
(also Celebra, celecoxib), an anti-inflammatory drug.
is under the dynamic and innovative leadership of a
man who came from humble beginnings and who rose to
prominence in the medical field through his remarkable
diligence and his tireless desire to help people.
Born in October of
1961 in Thessaloniki, Greece, Albert Bourla was raised
in a Sephardic Jewish family. Bourla is a Doctor of
Veterinary Medicine and holds a Ph.D. in the
Biotechnology of Reproduction from the Veterinary
School of Aristotle University. He left Greece with
his wife when he was 34 and since then he has lived in
seven different cities, in four different countries.
In 2020, he was
ranked as America’s top CEO in the Pharmaceuticals
sector by Institutional Investor magazine. He is on
the executive committee of The Partnership for New
York City, a director on multiple boards – Pfizer,
Inc., The Pfizer Foundation, PhRMA, and Catalyst – and
a Trustee of the United States Council for
International Business. In addition, Bourla is a
member of the Business Roundtable and the Business
Bourla began his
career at Pfizer in 1993 in the Animal Health Division
as Technical Director of Greece. He held positions of
increasing responsibility within Animal Health across
Europe, before moving to Pfizer’s New York Global
Headquarters in 2001. From there, Bourla went on to
assume a succession of leadership roles within the
Animal Health Division, including US Group Marketing
Director (2001-2004), Vice President of Business
Development and New Products Marketing (2004-2006),
and Area President of Animal Health Europe, Africa and
the Middle East (2006-2009). In 2009, he assumed
additional responsibilities for the Asia and Pacific
Bourla was President and General Manager of Pfizer’s
Established Products business from 2010-2013, leading
the development and implementation of strategies and
tactics related to Pfizer’s off-patent portfolio,
(including legacy brands and generics).
From January 2014
to January 2016, Bourla served as Group President of
Pfizer’s Global Vaccines, Oncology, and Consumer
Healthcare business, where he was instrumental in
building a strong and competitive position in oncology
and expanding the Company’s leadership in vaccines.
February 2016 to December 2017, Bourla served as Group
President of Pfizer Innovative Health, which comprised
the Consumer Healthcare, Inflammation &
Immunology, Internal Medicine, Oncology, Rare Disease
and Vaccines business groups. In addition, he created
the Patient and Health Impact Group, dedicated to
developing solutions for increasing patient access,
demonstrating the value of Pfizer’s medicines, and
ensuring broader business model innovation.
Pfizer’s chief operating officer (COO) on January 1,
2018, overseeing the company’s drug development,
manufacturing, sales, and strategy, as stated in a
Wikipedia profile. He restructured Pfizer and spun-off
the consumer health care business during his tenure as
COO. He was promoted to the chief executive officer
(CEO) role in October 2018, effective January 1, 2019,
succeeding Ian Read.
The antisemitic rhetoric of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan makes it easy to forget that there was a time in Jewish history when relations were very much better between Turks and Jews. Anti-Jewish crises in the Ottoman empire were often caused by Christians, not Muslims, under Ottoman rule, argues Jerusalem Online.
Jewish couple from Sarajevo, under Ottoman rule
When the Ottoman Turks liberated Bursa in 1324 from the oppressive yoke of the Byzantine Empire, they discovered a heavily oppressed Jewish community. The Jews of Bursa treated the Ottoman Turks as their saviors. Sultan Orhan gave the Jews who previously couldn’t build synagogues permission to build the Etz Ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) Synagogue. Indeed, the liberation of the Jews of Bursa in 1324 from the tyranny of the Byzantines represented the beginning of the Turkish-Jewish friendship.
Starting in the early 14th century, Jews fleeing oppression began to settle in the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Turkey became the home to Jews expelled from Hungary in 1376, from France in 1394, and from Sicily in the early 15th century. In the 1420’s, Jews living under Venetian controlled Salonika also migrated to the Ottoman Empire. In 1453, Sultan Mehmet II started to actively encourage Jews to settle in Ottoman lands. He issued a proclamation to all Jews stating, “Who among you of all my people that is with me, may his G-d he with him, let him ascend to Istanbul, the site of my imperial throne. Let him dwell in the best of the land.”(….)
Mark Mazower, writing in Salonica: City of Ghosts, that the Jews of Salonikka did not want the Ottoman Turks to leave the city and were opposed to Greek rule. “Few Jews believed they would be better off in one of the Christian successor states than they were in an empire where their loyalty made them trusted and none can have thought that Salonica in particular—-the city they dominated—-would develop to their benefit if it became part of Greece or Bulgaria. The rise of Balkan nationalism thus increased the intensity of the Jews identification with the Ottoman state,” he wrote.
Even when blood libels did arise within the Ottoman Empire, such as the infamous Damascus Blood Libel of 1840, it was the local Christians rather than the Ottoman Turks who instigated them.
Following the Damascus Blood Libel, Sultan Abdelmecid issued an edict to forbid blood libels within the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Abdelmecid asserted, “For the love we bear to our subjects, we cannot permit the Jewish nation, whose innocence for the crime alleged against them is evident, to be worried and tormented as a consequence of accusations which have not the least foundation in truth.”
Given this history, it is hard not to have nostalgia for the Ottoman Empire. It represented a time period in history when Jews and Muslims worked and thrived together for the greater good. It was a time of peace, tranquility, and serenity regarding Jewish-Turkish relations. Many modern Turks also have nostalgia for this period in history. Let’s hope that one day Turkish-Jewish relations can return to this.
Moses Elisaf, the head of the tiny Jewish community in the northern Greek city of Ioannina, was elected mayor in local elections on Sunday, reportedly becoming the country’s first-ever Jewish mayor. The Times of Israel reports:
Elisaf received 50.33 percent of the vote, narrowly beating incumbent mayor Thomas Bega, who got 49.67%, the Ekathimerini newspaper reported. According to the paper, this is first time that modern Greece has seen a Jew elected mayor.
Elisaf, a professor of pathology at the local university, has been the head of the local Jewish community for 17 years, and formerly also served as the head of the Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece. [….]
Elisaf ran as an independent
Ioannina’s Jewish community numbers just some 50 people today, but was once the center of the unique 2,300 year-old Romaniote Jewish tradition.
The Romaniote Jews, neither Ashkenazi nor Sephardic, emerged from the first Jewish communities of Europe. Records indicate the first Jewish presence in Greece dating back to 300 BCE.
These Jews became known as the Romaniotes, speaking their own language, Yevanic, or Judeo-Greek, a version of Greek infused with Hebrew and written with the Hebrew script.
While the vast majority of Holocaust victims were Ashkenazim, Sephardim from the Balkans, Greece and Bulgaria were also deported to Nazi death camps. For the first time, this year’s commemoration of the Holocaust focuses on the plight of Greek Jewry. Israel National News reports:
The Nazis arrive in Salonika
On Holocaust Memorial Day (Yom Hashoah), Thursday, May 2, more than
10,000 Jewish and non-Jewish youth from 40 countries and dozens of
Holocaust survivors and dignitaries from around the world participated in the 31st annual International March of the Living, the
three-kilometer march from Auschwitz to Birkenau, to pay tribute to all
victims of the Holocaust and call for an end to anti-Semitism.
This year, for the first time, the event’s main ceremony
will honor Greek Jewry, which was almost completely annihilated by the
Nazis and their collaborators.
Alan Rosenbaum in The Jerusalem Post traces the history of Greek Jewry (with thanks: Imre):
of the Greek Jews was one of the most tragic stories about the
Holocaust. Though all communities suffered greatly, Greek Jews suffered
even more because they were different and
even when they reached Auschwitz, their suffering was even greater.”
The Greek Jews, notes (Professor Gideon) Greif, were not used to the frigid climate of
Eastern Europe and could not communicate with their fellow Jews from
Eastern Europe, because they didn’t speak German,
Yiddish, or Polish. They were mocked by Ashkenazic Jews because of
their differences, he says. Many of them were compelled to work within
the killing installations as Sonderkommandos and were forced to aid with
the disposal of gas chamber victims during the
Greif explains that the rate of death within Greek Jewry was
among the highest in the Holocaust, “because the Germans used their
repertoire of deceit efficiently and hid their murderous intentions.” In
addition, he says, the Greek Jews were led
by Rabbi Zvi Koretz, the head of the Jewish council, who was naïve, and
thought that cooperating with the German authorities would improve
their situation. Because he was so obedient, says Greif, one transport
followed another until April 1944.
Professor (Devin) Naar notes that while the
destruction of the Jews of Saloniki was echoed throughout most of
Greece, some communities experienced different fates. The Jewish
population of Athens on the eve of the war was approximately
1500, and it doubled and tripled over the course of the war, as many
Jews fled there. The Nazis were less successful in deporting the Jews of
Athens, and Archbishop Damaskinos of Athens called on the citizens to
intervene and speak out against deportations.
This website is dedicated to preserving the memory of the near-extinct Jewish communities, of the Middle East and North Africa, documenting the stories of the Jewish refugees and their current struggle for recognition and restitution.
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