Month: May 2022

The terrible summer of 1962: an Algerian Jew’s story

Josette Sicsic was enjoying a carefree childhood after moving with her Algerian-Jewish family from Beni Saf to Hyères in the south of France in the 1950s. But the war of independence raging in Algeria continued to haunt her, with tragic consequences for her relatives still in the country. The summer of 1962 was supposed to mark the end of the war, but led to a series of life-changing traumas. In the latest of a series of testimonies to the forced exodus of Jews from Algeria 60 years ago, here is an extract from a memoir Josette wrote for her daughter, uploaded to the Morial website. (With thanks: Leon)

Josette: haunted by the war

I loved leaving Algeria and the prison it had been for me, arriving in the France of the ‘Trente Glorieuses’, the postwar years when the factories were running at full capacity,  unemployment did not exist, mothers gave birth to loads of baby boomers, holidaymakers took advantage of their paid holidays, driving in their little 4 CVs  to local campsites. We firmly believed that the future would be brilliant and that each generation would live better than the previous one.   I was all the more easily convinced that the future was upon us when our father bought a television.

It was an  innovation which not only opened the doors to knowledge with all kinds of great shows like Lecture pour tous and Cinq colonnes a la Une but enhanced enormously my popularity in the neighbourhood because I could now invite my friends and girlfriends to come and watch Jean Nohain and Rintintin on a Thursday afternoon!

But Algeria had not disappeared  – either from the news or from my life, nor that of my family. The events in Algeria kept happening and not a week passed by without my hearing about massacres, attacks and other violence victimising Algerians and French. Everyone in France had had enough. The bad news flowed on, despite poor communications – only the mail was reliable.  Algeria had always made me feel bad and my parents tried in vain to reassure me. I heard them whispering to each other about stories big and small. The one I was composing in my head  derived from a few expressions such as “Charonne metro”, ‘Red Seine’, ‘barricades,’ ‘battles of Algiers’, ‘bombers’, ‘OAS’,  ‘generals’ putsches, ‘repressions’ and then  one day – the word … “abduction”.

… There are words and moments in life that remain forever etched in memory. It was April 27, 1962, probably a Saturday afternoon.  I was in sixth grade and had new little girlfriends. One was  Claudine. She invited me to spend the afternoon at her place. She was a very good student and had become my rival. She was an only child, had a nice house and no doubt children’s games and toys that I envied.  That  afternoon, several of us went to play at her house. It was the beginning of spring, the sun and the first gentle breezes warmed the air of the heavenly place where we lived. As usual, I had to go home on foot, although Claudine’s home was very far from mine.

What time was it when I returned? Who, apart from my parents, were at home? I don’t recall; but what I do remember is their crestfallen faces. They were obviously afflicted by a drama that at first they tried to keep from me and then ended up revealing to me while trying to play it down: “Tonton  (Uncle ) Georges was kidnapped! »

The bomb had been dropped, it was exploding in our dining room thousands of miles away and in my little child’s head. I,  who naively believed that she was done with drama!

Uncle Georges! Kidnapped! On a  Friday night! And my aunt, my very dear Tata Mimi, our model aunt, the one who played the piano, drove a Dauphine, sent us records by Brassens and Charles Aznavour as well as state-of-the-art parkas, was a wreck. Tata Mimi, who travelled to Spain and Italy and invited my sister to accompany her on his travels. She made a nice couple with Georges, her husband, a doctor – tall, burly, smiling, rarely intimidating, with whom she had had two children – twins, twins!  My dear cousins,  about six months younger than me,  my main playmates in Beni Saf.

For a long time I probably stood petrified, trying to understand what this term “cursed” meant, which had brutally turned my life into a drama I believed I had escaped. “Abduction”, the term was relatively new in the vocabulary of this endless war and even if it
seemed less cruel and definitive than the term “death”, I  sensed that it was not trivial. I probably witnessed this that evening  –  in whispers, an unleashing of sighs of  despair and tears, many tears,  especially as my mother went to our neighbours to telephone her sister in order to learn a little more about the circumstances. Kidnapping was soon going  to  become the model for a frenzy of revenge by members of the FLN, animated by the signing of the Evian Accords since, officially, the war was over.

France was going to withdraw from Algeria, leaving it to the Algerians to ensure their own safety and prepare for  the long-awaited referendum on independence. Except that at the time, I did not did not know all that. I kept imagining that everything was hunkydory –  the
world was going to settle down, my family was going to come back to spend the holidays in Hyères and  we would go from time to time to Beni Saf to huddle under my father’s comforting parasol.

The days passed in a feverish atmosphere that no words of understanding could relieve. In our immediate surroundings, it did not seem that we had better understood the drama that was being played out. The neighbours were asking questions. What answers should we give them? Especially since the radio and the newspapers did not mention this type of tragedy which, it must be said, did not fit into the classic codes of  war. Deep down in all of us, kidnapping or disappearance were words leaving a little room for another term:” hope “. Maybe Tonton Georges was coming back?

Maybe my aunt would find him? Maybe a ransom, as in classic kidnappings, could get him released? So we began to wait for his release. But it was not a classic kidnapping. Every day, fake news kept us hovering around the mailbox and Madame Pucci ‘s ‘phone: she  had generously and patiently left us to call and receive calls from Beni Saf. I heard that  my uncle had been seen in the mountains,  in a village, in a field… I heard that my aunt had run to the mountains accompanied by a representative of the Red Cross International to try to have him released because the French army did not lift a finger. It did  nothing. This was confirmed to me much later by one of my cousins ​​who lived there. I heard whispers of conflicting news, fluctuating between hope and despair. At night when I went to bed, I started praying again. as my friend Minette had taught me. She told me that a modest intervention with the Almighty might deliver my uncle!

But it did not. We were in June. The debacle was gathering momentum. The Europeans, caught between the OAS and FLN firestorms, fled as best they could: in boats, in planes, in trawlers fitted out by Spanish fishermen…some went to Spain, notably to Alicante, where the Franco dictatorship did not care where the immigrants came from. Some were ghosts from the fifteenth century expulsion who still spoke Judeo-Spanish, like my grandmother.

My family were also packing their bags, looking desperately for ‘office workers’ (that was the term used) to move their  furniture and bring their children to safety. Only my Aunt Mimi and my grandmother appeared not to move. There was no way  they would abandon my uncle who we naively hoped was alive. Years later, when tongues were wagging, we learned that he had undoubtedly  been killed the very evening of his abduction, in such a brutal and savage way that I prefer not to say. For what reason? No one will ever know. He was a doctor, he treated everyone, he was close to the Algerians and probably also to the Communist Party. Was eliminating him a means to unleash a wind of panic and trigger the escape of a million “pieds noirs”  – abandoned to their fate, people which the French army had orders not to protect?

The history of the Algerian war is tragic. That of the last year is even more so. A population made up of petty employees, craftsmen, traders, mostly born there, were called to leave their native land in the greatest chaos and the worst insecurity. No one was protecting  them anymore.  General de Gaulle had been given full power to liquidate the Algerian problem when the war was won and peace talks were possible. In any case, sixty years later, this is what I read –  what we finally dared to say and write – but it was far too discreet for the message to be heard by
all. I mean by the majority of the population for whom the Algerian war of independence was  a legitimate war waged by an oppressed population against their oppressors.

And then, the month of June arrived. It was the end of school. Soon it  would be summer. I had finished my school year brilliantly with a prize for excellence. I had been moved up a class without a problem. So I was allowed to go and spend the afternoon at my friend Claudine’s, as usual. She was celebrating her birthday. The afternoon was joyful, we probably drank lemonade and ate candy and chocolate cake. Then I left, on foot as always. The path was long. I strolled along with another girlfriend and got home late in the afternoon in the sweetness of these first days of summer and holidays which  lasted three months at the time. No sooner had I arrived that  I understood that a new tragedy had struck us. My mother ‘s eyes were red with tears. My father was dark and mute. I still don’t remember if my brother and sister were there. In any case, I had to be told the horrible news.

This time, it was my uncle Jean Jacques, my father’s brother – younger, attractive, cheerful, charming – who had been kidnapped.  He was on the road leading from Beni Saf to Oran, trying to get boat tickets to leave Algeria. He was with a cousin or friend, I never really knew. I was stunned. Thus, each time I went to play at Claudine’s,  terrible news awaited me. I decided not to go there anymore. But, to what end? Although I have never been tempted by superstition, the coincidence haunted me for a long time and I still can’t stop thinking about it every time I see this friend.

The meal was probably horribly silent. The radio said nothing about the new drama. Neither did the television, so keen was France to get rid of the Algerian problem. Turning a blind eye to the disappeared ones,  she also forbade her army and her police to deal with the issue.  Fo her, the war was over. We were fobbed off with  TV news reports of the miserable hordes of men, women and children who poured into Marseilles, all crying as they clutched their meagre luggage. There were a million of them. It was nice to be in full Trente Glorieuses period,  but it was not going to be easy to resettle so many. But all of that eluded me at the time. What I wanted was to see my liberated uncles docking in Marseilles, holding by the hand their wives and children, my cousins!

The miracle never happened. Worse, two days later, another tragedy knocked on our door. More painful than the first two. Unspeakable. Terrible. A bolt of lightning. A telegram, one  those horrible little blue papers with white bands of  laconic text. We were handed it by the postman: the bell rang unexpectedly which startled the whole household. The postman handed over the telegram.

My mother did not want to open it and in turn handed it to my father who, with his usual methodical care, unfolded it slowly as he began to read it. I then saw his face darken and his lips tremble. The telegrams were never bearers of good news. Nor was the doorbell.  This is why I continue to jump fifty years later every time someone knocks on my door unexpectedly. My father folded up the blue paper, taking his time to announce the  drama that had struck my family again: Colette, the wife of my uncle Jean Jacques, his father and his mother, as well as  another cousin who had  gone in search of the missing,  had not come back! This brought to seven the members of my family who had disappeared! It was June 27 or 28, 1962.

Epilogue: Josette’s Aunt Mimi and her grandmother did finally manage to leave Algeria and join the family in France.

Read account in full (French)

After Sheikh Raymond’s murder, departure was inevitable

My silent departure from Algeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

For first time in 40 years, Israeli band visits Cairo

For the first time in 40 years, an Israeli orchestra performed in the Egyptian capital of Cairo, as part of Independence Day festivities at the Israeli embassy in the Arab country. Is this a first sign of the thawing of the ‘cold peace’ which has dominated relations between Israel and Egypt? The Algemeiner reports. 

Firqat Alnoor, an orchestra of Jewish, Muslim, Druze and Christian musicians from across Israel, performs classical Arabic and Middle Eastern music. Established in 2013, the musical ensemble has come to represent the religious and social diversity of Israel. Under conductor Ariel Cohen, a Haredi Jew, and the management of Hana Ftaya, it is considered one of the few existing orchestras to play music from across the Arab world to preserve the Arab classical musical tradition and Jewish culture.

Israeli Ambassador to Egypt Amira Oron, who hosted the festivities at the embassy in Cairo and at her residence, said that “events such as these express the way that the words peace and stability, which diplomats use so often, can become a practical reality.”

“Every day, the staff of the Israeli embassy in Cairo creates more peace with the help of our Egyptian partners,” Oron said during her speech.

Read article in full

Tunisian-Jewish specialities served up at new Paris restaurant

Japanese tourists and North African Muslims are among the clientèle of a new kosher-style restaurant in Paris. Mabrouk offers Tunisian-Jewish specialities without the usual kitsch surroundings. JTA reports (with thanks: Nancy):

PARIS (JTA) — As children in Paris, Alexandre David and Alexis Memmi looked forward to summer every year when they would relocate to their grandmothers’ homes in Tunisia.

Summers there meant frolicking on the beach under the hot sun, playing on the streets of the Jewish quarter of the capital Tunis, where their families lived — and plenty of glorious Sephardic dishes that those grandmothers made with recipes handed down and perfected over generations.

There, the childhood friends made a vow.

“We said that as soon as we grow up we’d open a restaurant together and serve those dishes in the center of Paris,” David, 35, told the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.

It took a little longer than they expected, but that childhood dream is finally a reality at Mabrouk, a kosher-style restaurant they opened in 2019 that aims to make Sephardic Tunisian dishes accessible to the modern Parisian diner.

Mabrouk, which has received glowing reviews in major publications, including Elle magazine and Nouvelles Gastronomiques, is part of a growing trend of North African cuisine in France. While couscous and merguez have been available in immigrant communities and niche eateries since immigration from North Africa first swelled in the 1950s, the new generation of restaurants offer a wider array of dishes, aimed at a broader cross-section of eaters.

Read article in full

 

 

 

Iraq poised to pass law criminalising contact with Israel (updated)

Update: The Council of Representatives of Iraq has approved  a draft resolution on banning any relations with the “Israeli occupation” and criminalizing the normalisation of ties. The bill was passed unanimously during an ordinary session in Baghdad, according to the state news agency INA. See Jewish News report.

While half the Arab world is busy normalising relations with Israel, Iraq appears to be going backwards. The Iraqi parliament is expected to pass a law criminalising Iraqis who have contact or communication with Israelis, even on social media. Those found guilty could face long terms of imprisonment or even execution. Jewish News reports:

Miss Israel, Adar Gandlesman, left, with Miss Iraq, Sarah Idan, a prominent advocate of normalisation.

Iraq is set to introduce a draconian law that would see citizens who communicate with Israelis executed.

News of the barbaric legislation comes as senior Iraqi delegates were due in London this week for a trade conference at which they will be feted by British ministers.

Analysts have highlighted the far-reaching effect of the proposed legislation, which covers foreign nationals in Iraq and Iraqi nationals outside Iraq. The drafting extends to Iraqis visiting Israeli embassies and Israeli-linked organisations overseas.

Alongside a ban on travel to Israel, it also prohibits “communication” with Israelis, including via social media. This goes further than similar legislation in states such as Kuwait, making it by far the most punitive anti-Israel law in the Arab world.

Members of the Iraqi Council of Representatives last week voted to progress the draft bill, titled ‘Banning Normalisation and Establishment of Relations with the Zionist Entity’. It is now before a parliamentary sub-committee, but commentators say it is expected to become law.

The bill bans “contact and communication of any kind and means with the occupying Zionist entity, its nationals, and representatives, whether individuals or institutions or organisations, for any reason”.

It also bans any “financial or moral assistance” to Israel or Israeli organisations, as it does the “promotion of any ideas, ideologies, principles, or Israeli or Zionist conduct, in any form”. Anyone found guilty would face “execution or lifelong imprisonment”.

If it is introduced, the law would cover all of Iraq, including the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan, with Iraqi Jews warning that it would risk family members speaking to one another across borders upon pain of death.

Read article in full

300 Iraqis regret ‘infamous’ Jewish flight

 

Jewish tourists stage Meknes ‘hillula’ for first time since 1960s

Morocco is reaping the tangible  benefits of ‘normalisation’ after Jewish tourists of Moroccan origin returned to the Jewish cemetery of Meknes for the first ‘hillula’ since the 1960s. The cemetery has been recently restored, one of 160 Jewish sites renovated by the King of Morocco. But the local community in Morocco itself stands at 1,500 Jews and there is little sign of its resurgence.  This AFP report has been widely picked up by the international media (With thanks: Leon):

The Mellah, or Jewish quarter, of Meknes

“This gathering is proof that you can turn a field of ruins into a place that keeps alive the memory of Moroccan Jews,” said Serge Berdugo, head of Morocco’s Jewish council.

Rabat’s normalization with Israel prompted only muted protests in Morocco despite widespread public support for the Palestinian cause.

Yousseph Israel, from the northern city of Tetouan, said Morocco “has always been an example of religious co-existence.” He is a judge at the Hebrew court in Casablanca; Jews in Morocco are allowed to have family cases settled under Jewish law.

Israelis were allowed to visit the kingdom even before relations were reestablished. Morocco is now hoping that newly-established air links with Israel will boost the number of Jewish visitors from around 60,000 per year to as many as 200,000.

Read article in full

Postcript: Normalisation, as represented by the Abraham Accords, can work in both directions. Here’s a Royal Air Maroc travel agency ad. designed to encourage young Moroccans to make the trip to Tel Aviv. (With thanks: Ariel)

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This website is dedicated to preserving the memory of the near-extinct Jewish communities, of the Middle East and North Africa, documenting the stories of the Jewish refugees and their current struggle for recognition and restitution.

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