From left: Rabbi Elie Abadie, JJAC co-vice-president, UNESCO director-general Irina Bokova and CRIF president Roger Cukierman.
Last week, a delegation from Justice of Jews from Arab Countries (JJAC) met with Director-General Irina Bokova at UNESCO’s Paris Headquarters to present her with a list of endangered Jewish sites. Mrs Bokova listened to ‘powerful’ addresses by Edwin Shuker of Iraq and Yves Fedida of Egypt. She expressed sorrow at the destruction of cultural heritage, but said she could not wave a magic wand. She was sceptical about the term ‘tolerance’ – a better term might be ‘respect’. UNESCO was an inter-governmental organisation of member states and its freedom of manoeuver was limited. She could do her best to encourage meetings between individual UNESCO ambassadors and Jewish organisations.
I was born a Jew in Egypt nearly 70 years ago.
could have been born as a Muslim in Haifa Muslim or a Christian in
Beirut. However this birth, to this day, denies me the celebrate my
story, to validate my past and preserve my culture.
With the exception
of a brief hiatus of a few years in the fifth century of our era, Egypt
was home to a Jewish community uninterruptedly since the sixth century
This community gave the world thinkers such as Philo of Alexandria, Saadia
Gaon and Maimonides. It gave modern Egypt Arabic language grammarians,
playwrights that shaped the modern theater, filmmakers who contributed
to its worldwide prestige and many other intellectuals. I cite Mourad
Farag, James Sanua. Abu Nadara, Togo Mizrahi among others.
And yet if
you tell any man in the street under 60 years old there existed a
community of nearly 80, 000 Jews in Egypt before 1948, he will
respectfully laught at you. It’s just that my story and culture
coincided in perfect harmony with an Egypt that was welcoming,
benevolent and tolerant until the not very distant past, which has been
obscured, even at Egypt’s own detriment.
Due to the trials of history, this community is no more. We can name nine
and eleven Jews in Alexandria and Cairo, respectively. Two men and
eighteen women, who, with the exception of two, are both in their
sixties, are all very avanced in age. That’s it.
Prior to 1948, the country was blessed with a rich heritage of sixty
synagogues across its cities, of which eight are among the oldest in the
world, the community nowadays can barely account for about fifteen, of
which four are among the world’s most ancient. Ten of them are under the
authority and good care of the Department of Antiquities, to whom we
are indebted, but which does nothing toward their preservation,
especially since it no longer has the financial wherewithal. No one can
pray there, no one comes into these places of worship as they have
become ghostly. Some of these synagogues are in a state of advanced
degradation, while others are in need of light restoration. If nothing
is done about this situation, there will remain no more than three at
most the next decade, albeit the most beautiful; but, in the long term, they will disappear
as well, ending two and a half thousand years of coexistence.
The Ben Ezra synagogue in Cairo may be one of only three remaining out of 60 synagogues
As with Prague, Izmir, or Fez as precedents, we wish to enlist the help of
UNESCO and the World Monument Fund Jewish Heritage, of our own elders
and especially of the Egyptian government pro-active action to save
these inert witnesses of history which depend on an unstable and
variable local tolerance.
Each city had its own Jewish cemetery. They all disappeared except those
which have great appeal to Alexandria’s real estate developers, and the
Bassatine Cemetery in Cairo that dates from the eighth century. This
third oldest Jewish cemetery in the world is still active but the tombs
have been relieved on their marble, which has been used to adorn
storefronts in town. It is lined with ad hoc supply routes where
donkeys, trucks and bicycles disrespectfully trample over the graves,
and where I continue to find the illegal appropriation of hundreds of
square meters in each of my annual visits, not to mention the lamentable
state of disrepair.
Indeed, since it is Jewish, it is perfectly normal nowadays to store one’s
garbage! Thus, the living can no longer find their dead; but if the dead
can no longer deplore their lack of respect, I am telling you loud and
clear that this is a nothing short of a nauseating scandal.
We beg for an intervention that would lay down the law and would protect the
sites with dignity, erect a wall, as unfortunate as that may sound, but
sufficient enough to maintain the spirituality of the site. I asked the
people of the Cairo Governorate if they would have accepted that their
parents be treated in a similar manner if they had died in France. You
can guess their answer.
I was born Solomon in Egypt – it could have been George in Istanbul or Ahmed
in Jerusalem. But unlike them, I do not have a right to my identity.
While my family and I were expelled from Egypt without the right of
return to whence we were born, and while some were stripped of their
Egyptian nationality because they were Jews, I am unable to get access
to 255 birth records, marriages, divorces, deaths and public awareness,
all of which is a collection of civil and religious status. A complete
collection which dates from 1830 identifying all Jews of Alexandria ever
since. Family photos accompany these documents from the early 20th
century. These families who were born in Egypt, those from the East or
the West, those from Europe or Asia, in this haven called Egypt since
time immemorial, and in which no one, today, can count on its spiritual
Yves Fedida: no right to identity
Since I was expelled because I was a Jew, paradoxically, I cannot prove my
religious identity, and I have to struggle to prove my civil status with
the very people who had rejected me. As you know the civil and
religious state of the Ottoman empire devoted to religious communities
remained in force in Egypt until January 1956. Forty percent of this
population had been denied nationality. They remained stateless since
1925. This is their only historical identity.
If this denial of identity is, of course, contrary to Article Six of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it is especially contrary to
Egypt’s own interests that would benefit the development of this
collection, of which we do want a simple copy that we are willing to
The community (two disabled people), under the supervision of
the Security Services, confirms that they need their permission, whereas
the latter state, without wanting to formally confirm, that the
community is independent.
As part of the intangible heritage of humanity, we plead UNESCO to
intervene effectively with the Egyptian government to stop this
unfruitful game and to place this collection under UNESCO’s
responsibility. Madam Director General, you spoke yesterday of history,
culture and heritage, as your everyday reality. I am offering here what
As for me, I dream of being able to organize under your auspices an exhibition
such as that you opened yesterday, this time depicting the three
thousand years of Jewish presence in Egypt, that I still love in spite
Thank you for trying to turn my dream into reality.