Solution in sight for Iraqi-Jewish archive

Handwritten document from the Iraqi-Jewish archive, now on view at the National Archives in Washington DC

What happens next to the Iraqi-Jewish archive? A tug-of-war for ownership between the government of Iraq and exiled Jews is being played out. This article in the December issue of Ami magazine by Machla Abramovitch suggests a softening on both sides:  the Iraqi government may finally concede a long-term loan arrangement. (With thanks: Carole)

 The scene at New Montefiore Cemetery in
West Babylon, New York on the wet and chilly afternoon of December 15 was
nothing less than surrealistic. Mingling sociably with over 100 Iraqi Jews who
had come from far and wide was Lukman Faily, Iraq’s new ambassador to the
United States, as well as dignitaries from the Iraqi Ministries of the Inte-
rior, Foreign Affairs and National Security Council who had flown in from
Baghdad for the occasion. Also attending was US State Department Director of
Near East and African Affairs Anthony Godfrey and Doris Hamburg, Director of
the National Archives and Records Administration preservation program (NARA).
They had come to bury close to 50 fragments of damaged Torah scrolls and
Megillos Esther that were beyond repair and had been part of the collection
that has come to be known as the Iraqi Jewish Archives.

Dr. Stanley Urman, executive vice president
of Justice for Jews from Arab Countries (JJAC), was at the cemetery. “In the
midst of continuing controversy over ownership of the Iraqi Jewish Archives,”
said Urman, “it was quite startling to see them handling these Jewish
artifacts with respect, symbolically laying to rest the heritage of a now-defunct
Jewish community as Tehillim were being recited.”

The burial of the fragments was negotiated
by Maurice Shohet, president of the World Organization of Iraqi Jews (WOJI).
The day had been long in coming. It had taken close to five years of
negotiations for the Iraqi government, which claims patrimony over these sacred
fragments, to agree to bury them. The burial of
the fragments was negotiated by Maurice
Shohet, president of the World Organization of Iraqi Jews (WOJI).


These, together with thousands of priceless
Jewish artifacts res- cued in 2003 from the flooded basement of Saddam
Hussein’s intelligence headquarters, had been brought out of Iraq only after an
agreement between NARA and Iraq’s interim government was signed, legally
binding the US to return the materials to Iraq by June 2014.

Once in the States, they were lovingly and
meticulously cleaned, repaired, conserved and digitized by NARA under the care
of Hamburg and Mary Lynn Ritzenthaler, chief of the Document Conservation
Laboratory, at a cost to the State Department of about $3 million. The archives
are currently on exhibit in the National Archives Building in Washington, DC,
until January 5, 2014, when they are scheduled to be moved to New York.

This agreement, however, has ignited a
battle. Many Iraqi Jews have galvanized into action to fight the return to Iraq
of these priceless artifacts of their history. Citing security concerns that
would prevent him and fellow Iraqi Jewish expatriates from accessing these
materials should they return to Iraq, Edwin Shuker was just one of many who
publicly voiced his opposition. But Iraq was not prepared to listen.

“The Iraqi government will not give up any
part of these docu- ments. This is an Iraqi legacy owned by all the Iraqi
people and it belongs to all the generations, regardless of religious, ethnic
or sectarian affiliations,” declared Ali al-Moussawi on behalf of Iraqi Prime
Minister Nouri al-Maliki.

This position, though, wasn’t set in stone.
Reports had been floating that a separate delegation would soon arrive to
discuss a long-term loan of the archives to the US. Many hope this indicates
a shift towards a new and more accommodating Iraq. “This is a statement by the
government and people of Iraq that we are here to respect the heritage of the
Jews,” Faily said following the burial.

Whatever the motivation, the change didn’t
happen overnight. There had been indications for the past two weeks that both
the Iraqi government and the State Department, the two major players, were
beginning to soften their positions, and that the latter was prepared to
facilitate a compromise between Iraq and WOJI, the representative body of world
Iraqi Jewry. There is no question that Jewish advocacy played a key role in
sensitizing these players and the public at large to what many saw as an
injustice in returning Jewish property to the very country that had looted it.

Although the precise details of this
extended loan are yet to be negotiated and the proposal might not address the
matter of Jewish patrimony itself, activists like Urman see it as a small step
towards a positive resolution to a story that began unexpectedly a decade ago
under the strangest of circumstances.


Islamic affairs expert Dr. Harold Rhode
vividly recalls standing in front of the bombed-out Mukhabarat, Saddam
Hussein’s intelligence headquarters, staring into a gaping hole with a 2,000-
pound unexploded American bomb protruding from it. It was May 2003, and the
temperature in Baghdad hovered at around 120 degrees. Through the hole he could
see the basement of the building, which had flooded with dark, putrid water
after its pipes were destroyed. What he was now looking at, he was told, was a
room filled with Baghdadi Jewish artifacts and holy books immersed in slime

The day before, Ahmad Chalabi, head of the
opposition Iraqi National Congress, had been visited by a former Saddam
intelligence official currying favor who informed him of the existence of
this cache, which included a seventh-century Hebrew scroll on parchment that he
claimed to have hidden inside the build- ing himself. Intrigued, Chalabi
notified Rhode and Judith Miller, a former New York Times journalist who was
embedded with the Mobile Exploitation Team Alpha, the American group searching
for weapons of mass destruction. Gazing into the abyss, they, along with New
York Sun reporter Adam Daifallah, members of the Iraqi National Congress and
the 16-member MET Alpha team, solemnly considered the daunting task before them.

According to Miller, the water level had
reached four feet, there were dead animals floating on the surface, the
stairwell leading down to the basement was littered with shards of glass and
fallen plaster, and a horrendous stench rose from the mess. How to find a
seventh-century Hebrew scroll amidst all this debris?

Girding themselves, Chief Warrant Officer
Richard “Monty” L. Gonzales and two of the MET Alpha soldiers plunged in. Even
though their job was to search for WMDs and not to retrieve reli- gious artifacts,
they had been asked to make an exception by their commander, Colonel Richard R.
McPhee, who was unwilling to
leave this historic scroll behind. “They
went into the muck again and again to pull things out, with a bomb sitting
right there. It was an impressive effort,” Miller told Ami.


What they found astounded them. There was
an “Israel” room that included, among masses of other items, maps highlighting
terrorist strikes against Israel, a detailed model of the Knesset and other
Israeli government buildings, and satellite photos of Dimona, Israel’s nuclear
facility. There was also a sign in Arabic that read, “Who will send off the
40th missile?” (During the Persian Gulf War, a total of 39 missiles fell on

Equally disconcerting was the “Jew” room
across the sodden corridor, filled with thousands of books and artifacts that,
as would later be ascertained, had been indiscriminately looted by Saddam’s
thugs from Baghdad synagogues, Jewish community centers and schools. These
constituted what would come to be referred as the “Iraqi Jewish Archives.”

The collection consists of some 2,700 books
that correlate, ironically, with the 2,700 years of Babylonian Jewish
history. Among some of the rarest finds were a Chumash published in 1568 by
Giovanni di Gara, Abraham Brudo’s Birkat Avraham, published in 1696, a Babylonian
Talmud from 1793, and a Zohar from 1815, in addition to many fragments,
standard prayer books, Chumashim and commentaries. A manuscript has just come
to light that was identified as a missing piece of a Shabbos drashah given by
the illustrious halachic authority and kabbalist Chacham Yosef Chaim, known as
the Ben Ish Chai.  

Read article in full


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


This website is dedicated to preserving the memory of the near-extinct Jewish communities, of the Middle East and North Africa, documenting the stories of the Jewish refugees and their current struggle for recognition and restitution.

Point of No Return

Jewish Refugees from Arab and Muslim Countries

One-stop blog on the Middle East's
forgotten Jewish refugees - updated daily.