Massacres of Jews by Muslims before 1948


“Jews lived happily together with Muslims and in harmony before Israel was established.”
How many times have you heard this said?

We are indebted to Torbjorn Karfunkel, who has blown the myth of peaceful coexistence sky-high with his pre-1948 ‘massacre map’ of Jews by Muslims (click on the map to enlarge). The map should not be considered exhaustive, but it does go back to the 7th century, when Mohammed’s followers massacred Jewish tribes in Arabia. It reminds us that Jews were murdered in Spain in 1066, in spite of the ‘Andalusian Golden Age’. The cluster of explosive dots over Morocco recalls that relationships between Jews and Muslims during the 19th century were not always plain sailing.

 To this ‘massacre map’ one might add the blood libels which spread like wildfire across the Ottoman empire, often resulting not in massacres, but in individuals arrested, tortured and unfairly accused.

As the great Tunisian-Jewish writer Albert Memmi has written: “coexistence with the Arabs was not just uncomfortable, it was marked by threats periodically carried out.”  

 Here is a list compiled by Peter Baum:

622 – 627: ethnic cleansing of Jews from Mecca and Medina, (Jewish boys publicly inspected for pubic hair. if they had any, they were executed)

629: 1st Alexandria Massacres, Egypt

622 – 634: extermination of the 14 Arabian Jewish tribes

822 – 861: Islamic empire passes law that Jews must wear yellow stars, (a lot like Nazi Germany), Caliph al-Mutawakkil

1106: Ali Ibn Yousef Ibn Tashifin of Marrakesh decrees death penalty for any local Jew, including his Jewish Physician, and Military general.

1033: 1st Fez Pogrom, Morocco

1148: Almohadin of Morocco gives Jews the choice of converting to Islam, or expulsion

1066: Granada Massacre, Muslim-occupied Spain

1165 – 1178: Jews nation wide were given the choice (under new constitution) convert to Islam or die, Yemen

1165: chief Rabbi of the Maghreb burnt alive. The Rambam flees for Egypt.

1220: tens of thousands of Jews killed by Muslims after being blamed for Mongol invasion, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Egypt

1270: Sultan Baibars of Egypt resolved to burn all the Jews, a ditch having been dug for that purpose; but at the last moment he repented, and instead exacted a heavy tribute, during the collection of which many perished.

1276: 2nd Fez Pogrom, Morocco

1385: Khorasan Massacres, Iran

1438: 1st Mellah Ghetto massacres, North Africa

1465: 3rd Fez Pogrom, Morocco (11 Jews left alive)

1517: 1st Safed Pogrom, Ottoman Palestine

1517: 1st Hebron Pogrom, Ottoman Palestine

Marsa ibn Ghazi Massacre, Ottoman Libya

1577: Passover Massacre, Ottoman empire

1588 – 1629: Mahalay Pogroms, Iran

1630 – 1700: Yemenite Jews under strict Shi’ite ‘dhimmi’ rules

1660: 2nd Safed Pogrom, Ottoman Palestine

1670: Mawza expulsion, Yemen

1679 – 1680: Sanaa Massacres, Yemen

1747: Mashhad Masacres, Iran

1785: Tripoli Pogrom, Ottoman Libya

1790 – 92: Tetuan Pogrom. Morocco (Jews of Tetuuan stripped naked, and lined up for Muslim perverts)

1800: new decree passed in Yemen, that Jews are forbidden to wear new clothing, or good clothing. Jews are forbidden to ride mules or donkeys, and were occasionally rounded up for long marches naked through the Roob al Khali dessert.

1805: 1st Algiers Pogrom, Ottoman Algeria

1808 2nd 1438: 1st Mellah Ghetto Massacres, North Africa

1815: 2nd Algiers Pogrom, Ottoman Algeria

1820: Sahalu Lobiant Massacres, Ottoman Syria

1828: Baghdad Pogrom, Ottoman Iraq

1830: 3rd Algiers Pogrom, Ottoman Algeria

1830: ethnic cleansing of Jews in Tabriz, Iran

1834: 2nd Hebron Pogrom, Ottoman Palestine

1834: Safed Pogrom, Ottoman Palestne

1839: Massacre of the Mashadi Jews, Iran

1840: Damascus Affair following first of many blood libels, Ottoman Syria

1844: 1st Cairo Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1847: Dayr al-Qamar Pogrom, Ottoman Lebanon

1847: ethnic cleansing of the Jews in Jerusalem, Ottoman Palestine

1848: 1st Damascus Pogrom, Syria

1850: 1st Aleppo Pogrom, Ottoman Syria

1860: 2nd Damascus Pogrom, Ottoman Syria

1862: 1st Beirut Pogrom, Ottoman Lebanon

1866: Kuzguncuk Pogrom, Ottoman Turkey

1867: Barfurush Massacre, Ottoman Turkey

1868: Eyub Pogrom, Ottoman Turkey

1869: Tunis Massacre, Ottoman Tunisia

1869: Sfax Massacre, Ottoman Tunisia

1864 – 1880: Marrakesh Massacre, Morocco

1870: 2nd Alexandria Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1870: 1st Istanbul Pogrom, Ottoman Turkey

1871: 1st Damanhur Massacres,Ottoman Egypt

1872: Edirne Massacres, Ottoman Turkey

1872: 1st Izmir Pogrom, Ottoman Turkey

1873: 2nd Damanhur Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1874: 2nd Izmir Pogrom, Ottoman Turkey

1874: 2nd Istanbul Pogrom, Ottoman Turkey

1874: 2nd Beirut Pogrom,Ottoman Lebanon

1875: 2nd Aleppo Pogrom, Ottoman Syria

1875: Djerba Island Massacre, Ottoman Tunisia

1877: 3rd Damanhur Massacres,Ottoman Egypt

1877: Mansura Pogrom, Ottoman Egypt

1882: Homs Massacre, Ottoman Syria

1882: 3rd Alexandria Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1890: 2nd Cairo Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1890, 3rd Damascus Pogrom, Ottoman Syria

1891: 4th Damanahur Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1897: Tripolitania killings, Ottoman Libya

1903&1907: Taza & Settat, pogroms, Morocco

1890: Tunis Massacres, Ottoman Tunisia

1901 – 1902: 3rd Cairo Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1901 – 1907: 4th Alexandria Massacres,Ottoman Egypt

1903: 1st Port Sa’id Massacres, Ottoman Egypt

1903 – 1940: Pogroms of Taza and Settat, Morocco

1907: Casablanca, pogrom, Morocco

1908: 2nd Port Said Massacres,Ottoman Egypt

1910: Shiraz blood libel

1911: Shiraz Pogrom

1912: 4th Fez Pogrom, Morocco

1917: Baghdadi Jews murdered by Ottomans

1918 – 1948: law passed making it illegal to raise an orphan Jewish, Yemen

1920: Irbid Massacres: British mandate Palestine

1920 – 1930: Arab riots, British mandate Palestine

1921: 1st Jaffa riots, British mandate Palestine

1922: Djerba Massacres, Tunisia

1928: Jewish orphans sold into slavery, and forced to convert t Islam by Muslim Brotherhood, Yemen

1929: 3rd Hebron Pogrom British mandate Palestine.

1929 3rd Safed Pogrom, British mandate Palestine.

1933: 2nd Jaffa riots, British mandate Palestine.

1934: Thrace Pogroms, Turkey

1936: 3rd Jaffa riots, British mandate Palestine

1941: Farhud Massacrs, Iraq

1942: Mufti collaboration with the Nazis. plays a part in the final solution

1938 – 1945: Arab collaboration with the Nazis

1945: 4th Cairo Massacre, Egypt

1945: Tripolitania Pogrom, Libya

1947: Aden Pogrom

1947: 3rd Aleppo Pogrom, Syria

1948: “emptying” of the Jewish quarter of Damascus, Syria

1948: 1st Arab Israeli war (1 out of every 100 Jew was killed)

1948: Oujda & Jerada Pogroms, Morocco

1948: Libyan massacre of Jews

1955: 3rd Istanbul Pogrom, Turkey

1956: 1st Egyptian Inquisition of Jews

1965: 5th Fez Pogrom, Morocco

1967: 2nd Egyptian jailing of Jews as Israeli PoWs

1967: Tunis riots, Tunisia

35 Comments

  • There were different periods, for many, there was peaceful co-existence. In 1,000 years you can find a list of anything.

    Reply
  • You might have a point if Jews were the only people, tribe being massacred through out time, but they are not. In fact history shows us that Muslims and Jews have lived among each other in peace, Jews living in Iraq 70 years ago were participating in government, this is pathetic propaganda, instead of clinging to this idea of hatred at birth you should be teaching about the times Muslims and Jews worked together, There are plenty of examples of Jews slaughtering Muslims too, before the 67 UN rresolution went into effect Israel had already created 400k+ Refugees.
    Get your history correct

    Reply
  • several tribes of Jews were the one who invite Muhammad s.a.w to their land and appoint him as their union leader. How can one claims Muhammad kills Jews if they are the one who invite him as leader?

    Historically, Christians killed Jews. That's why Rabbis keep on reminding all Jews of this.

    “We will never forgive Europe’s Christians for slaughtering millions of our children, women and elderly . . . throughout the generations, in a consistent manner which characterizes all factions of hypocritical Christianity. – Rabbi Baruch Efrati

    Reply
  • Spanish Massacres- Persecution of Jews in Spain dated back to the Visigothic rule, when they had been expelled. However, under Muslim rule, Jews had prospered in Spain despite occasional pogroms or massacres. hey attained an estimated population of half a million, but as Spain was reclaimed by Christians, their fortunes fell. The persecutions of Jews and Muslims in Spain culminated with the expulsion of 1492 and the Inquisition, but in Christian Spain, massacres of Jews were initiated about about 150 years earlier.

    The problems of the Jews began in the conflict between King Pedro, a protector of the Jews and Henry of Trastamara. Wherever Henry or his supporters triumphed, Jews were murdered. In the Alcana part of the Juderia (ghetto) of Toledo, Henry's supporters plundered the warehouses and murdered about 12,000 persons about 1355. However, the Jews defended themselves, with the aid of nobles, and succeeded in stopping the massacre. In 1360, Henry invaded Castile. He murdered all the Jews living in Najera and pillaged and murdered and plundered the Jews of Miranda de Ebro.

    In 1366, the situation of the Jews became yet more serious, as Henry's forces began to win victory after victory. Villadiego, Aguilar, and many other towns were totally destroyed. The inhabitants of Valladolid, who paid homage to Henry, robbed the Jews, destroyed their houses and synagogues, and desecrated the Torah scrolls . Paredes, Palencia, and several other communities were likewise attacked, and 300 Jewish families from Jaen were taken as prisoners to Granada.

    By 1369, Pedro had been beheaded and Henry was victorious. Henry himself was less than sympathetic to the Jews. However, he recognized that he needed them and tried to protect them. During the civil war (literally fratricide, since Pedro and Henry were half brothers) the clergy had become more powerful. Various anti-Jewish decrees followed.

    A revolt broke out in Seville in 1391. The fanatical mob, still further exasperated by attempts to punish its ringleaders, and under the influence of preachers, attacked the Juderia in Seville from on June 6 and reportedly killed 4,000 Jews; the rest submitted to baptism as the only means of escaping death.

    Ref: http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Spanish_Pogroms.htm

    Reply
  • Is it necessary to hate each other, I think not. Christians massacred Jews as it says, Jews were murdered in Spain in 1066, in spite of the 'Andalusian Golden Age, Also massacred Muslims as well through History as well Jews did to christians and continuously till now are massacring Muslim for decades in Palestine. What I can see here people being proud of killing each other. As long as these kind of things keep going on always these massacres will go on forever unless to forget the past without any greed and envy and live peaceful and wish each other good. We are all Human beings if we dont wish what we have for others to have this kind of things will go on, by the way what is ged to do if your brother is Christian, Muslim or Jews after all they r human being. I do not see here anything to be proud of by killing each other and spreading hate. stop hating each other and try to coexist and live peacefully.

    Reply
  • I'm sorry Mr Mouldi but Jews were killed in Tunisia before 1948. Even if you blame the deaths of scores of Jews during the German occupation on the Nazis, Tunisian Arabs started riots against the Jews of Kef, Ebba, Ksour, Moktar, Degache and Siliania in 1940 and Gafsia in 1941.
    In May 1941 eight Jews were murdered in Gabes and 20 injured.
    Tunisian Jews may feel nostalgia but the truth is they were never secure, and under Bourguiba, the community was stripped of its powers and Jews marginalised in society. In 1967 the great synagogue in Tunis was set on fire and Jews escaped with their lives. It is nonsense to suggest that the Zionists lured them with money, how do you then explain how come so many ended up in France?

    Reply
  • Go to you tube and see how much Tunisian Jews and the generations born in Israel regret Tunisia! How can somebody regret a country where he was treated badly? By them neighbours !(am not talking about dictors and police …all Tunisians were bad treated in those years …thank God it is OVER NOW!)
    Honestly, Mr Memmi is the only Tunisian Jew who tells very curious story about Tunisian tolerance!

    Reply
  • Sorry but I REALLY don’t understand WHY Mr Mimmi is telling a lies about TUNISIA?
    MAny Jews of Tunisia (who left because the Zionist scared them about them future on Tunisia) come back in holiday all the time and goes to hag them ex- Muslim neighbours…some even want to build houses because they want to come back when they retired…
    In the entire world y include in Israel Tunisian Jews talk always with love about Tunisia!
    In 2011 the revolution time , Israel told that every Tunisian Jew who come to Israel will have 12000 Euro and all other needs …but no one left and the head of the Jew community said in the television (I sow it)that he don’t understand what Israel really want !and no Jew left Tunisia for Israel!!!
    I think Mr Memmi is a ZIONIST (what a shame) who wants that all Arab Jews go to Israel 😉
    About the non-secure feeling of Jews under those dictators, you should understand Mr Memmi that ALL Tunisians felt the same under the police state…

    Reply
  • But nobody was killed in TUNISIA 😉
    So don’t hate each others and be like Tunisia.)
    Peace ,love and tolerance ..
    Should be NO hate between religions! Right?;)
    Bye from Tunisia

    Reply
  • Where did you get the idea that Muslims and Christians always lived in peace?
    Christianity died out under Islam in Arabia and North Africa.
    What would you call the Crusades ? The Reconquista? Peace and love between Christians and Muslims?

    Turks versus Armenians? Muslim Iraqis versus Assyrians? I could go on.

    You seem to imply that Jews are to blame for their own persecution.

    Reply
  • I have questions:
    1. Why do Muslims and Christians live in peace
    2. Why Jews persecuted and murdered wherever they settle
    3. Is the error in the Jews or Christians or Muslims

    Reply
    • If you think that the massacre of Christians in Nigeria, Syria, Sudan, Iraq and other muslim countries is living in peace is a distorted view of the truth and does fully void your question 1 & 2 you big liar.

      Reply
    • Anonymous it's ckear you are an ignorant antisemite. You probably are in the nazi group.

      Reply
  • Anonymous said…

    "You cant really blame them though. They are being used by God to punish the Jews for rejecting Jesus Christ as there Lord and Savior. If they only accept him they wouldnt [sic] have gone through all this."

    Really? And why exactly were Christians massacred by Muslims throughout history? To carry out the will of Allah? Or Odin perhaps? Or Xenu? The fact is Muslims kill anyone who isn't a Muslim, and it's never the will of God when they do.

    Reply
  • Let's not forget Esau selling his birth right for some grub, that's another ouchy they tend to deny.

    And please don't bring up the crusades, those people weren't christians. There's a difference between following man-made traditions and following Jesus Christ. Those that followed the latter were just as brutally persecuted as the Jews during the inquisition, burned as heretics and such.

    God bless Israel 😉

    Reply
  • Maimonides in 1172, in a letter to Yemen…:

    "God has hurled us in the midst of this people, the Arabs, who have persecuted us severely, and passed baneful and discriminatory legislation against us, as Scripture has forewarned us, "Our enemies themselves shall judge us" (Deut. 32:3 1). Never did a nation molest, degrade, debase, and hate us as much as they…"

    It's been jihad all along – ever since Hagar was sent out in the desert..

    Reply
  • "You cant really blame them though. They are being used by God to punish the Jews for rejecting Jesus Christ as there Lord and Savior. If they only accept him they wouldnt have gone through all this."

    Oh, you mean because Christians in Muslim lands have had such an easy time, so if Jews had convereted to Christianity everything would have been just dandy? Of course. That makes perfect sense, because 21 Christians weren't massacred in an Egyptian church recently. And there are no indigenous Christians in Saudi Arabia because the Muslims were so nice to them and made them feel so welcome.

    Unless you were being sarcastic (as I was), your attitude is appalling. And BTW, it's 'their Lord' not 'there Lord'.

    Reply
  • You cant really blame them though. They are being used by God to punish the Jews for rejecting Jesus Christ as there Lord and Savior. If they only accept him they wouldnt have gone through all this.

    Reply
    • Can't really blame them???;You are such a loser. What about the Christians being constantly massacred by Muslims all over Africa etc? Can't really blame the Muslims here either eh? You fu#$ing idiot.

      Reply
  • In mapping violence before 1948, you have completely omitted any mention of Jewish massacres of Muslims!

    How do you explain this discrepancy?

    Reply
    • In 1941 the Grand Mufti sent sent in 30,000 muslims to join the Einsatzgruppen to kill 1.5 million Jews in Eastern Europe!

      Reply
    • I’m unaware of Jews massacring Muslims. Can you give some examples please.

      Reply
  • The map does bring the visual aspect of the events but it does not do justice to the type of life ordinary jews endured on a daily basis. Sure,there were many pogroms against jews in Arab lands before 1948. I mean countless ones. The ones in the map are only the ones that were recorded. I want to stress the fact of the wreched lives ordinary jews lived under the yoke of muslim anti-jewish attitudes. I am well aware that the court appointed jews had a somewhat a relatively less constraining life, and that the European colonial penetration into the arab lands lessed somehow the discrmination suffered by Jews.

    However, it is the daily life that ordinary jews in arab lands who suffer humiliation, scorn, and debasements rituals on a daily basis. The massacres are in a way the culmination of these attitudes. The fact that jews survive all this and maintained their dignity is a mere miracle. To me, Jews of arab lands endured more than massacres and pogroms… And to this, the arab social commentators never recognised. They can acknowledge pogroms and massacres and they even attribute them to extraneous political factors such as colonialism, arab nationalism and all the "isms" under the sun, but they would always deny the daily lives as second class dhimmitude position of the jews. And to this day they are still advancing the fabricated jewish and arab golden age of understanding and harmony.

    If someone wants to really dig deeper into the extrodinary description of daily lives of jews (plus their killings) one must consult the seminal edited work of Andrew Bostom: "The legacy of Islamic anti-semitism:. It is trully an eye opener in terms of all the sources Andrew Bostom gathered. There are some damning evidence about the outrage and sheer madness of islamic beliefs towards jews. Beliefs that were acted upon on a dialy basis.

    Reply
  • Good job with this map. There is missing information though. We know for example from Maimonides' Epistle to the Jews of Yemen" that there were massacres and forced conversion of the non-Muslim population at thst time (12th century).

    Reply
  • happy for the cleanness of Egypt map

    before Israel was established the sectarian believers in the nation of Islam committed those crimes
    After establishing Israel there's two teams of believers in the nation of religion so the crimes & massacres will cover up the map completely

    the problem is about the minds that hate

    Reply

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